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Mohammed Iqbal's Understanding of Fate
Mohammed Iqbal lived in a period (1877-1938) that witnessed the downfall of Ottoman empire and as well as of Muslim world. The political situation in Muslim world was in gradual reformation. To Iqbal’s mind the causes of downfall of Muslims especially of South Asia had its firm roots in Sufism (contamination of Shirk in pure waters of God’s Unity). Secondly, illegible sultans having authority over masses and finally the deep fatalism of Muslims that keep them away from practicalities of life. To Iqbal, the impressions of individuality and freedom of thought could be seen in first three centuries of Islam after the Prophet Mohammed. Iqbal mentions of Prophet Mohammed being first Mujtahid after the Quranic revelation and Prophet’s emphasis on legal rulings in accordance to reason of his time. However, Muslims left the reconstruction of their religious thought and habituated themselves in mere imitation of rituals and practices.

Mohammed Iqbal, Fate, Fatalism, Individuality, Reconstruction of Islamic thought

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